What Are the Different Diseases Which Come Under Neurosurgery?

Jul 13 2020 Published by under Uncategorized

Brain and spinal cord are the two most important parts of the nervous system. It acts as a relay. It transmits information to different parts of the body. The actions taken by the body is because of the information given by the nervous system. This system is divided into two sub categories – central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Together, they make sure our body is working fine. Some diseases prevent this system from working in a normal manner. The branch of medicine which deals with the conditions and diseases of the nervous system is known as neurology. When the treatment requires surgical intervention, then neurosurgery comes into play.

Following explained are the conditions which are dealt by a neurosurgeon –

• Brain Tumor

It is the condition in which abnormal cells from within the brain. They can either start in the brain or at other places and travel to the brain. A malignant tumor is cancerous whereas a benign one of non cancerous. The rate at which it grows depends on the extent of the tumor. This growth determines the function of the tumor.

Some of the types of tumor are glioma, meningioma, brain metastases etc. These occur when there is error in DNA mutation. It is identified with the help of symptoms such as onset of headache, nausea, vomiting, vision problem, seizures etc.

• Epilepsy

It is a group of neurological disorders in which there is abnormal brain activity leading to seizures. There is a random period of unusual behavior which causes sensation and loss of awareness. The symptoms which are observed by the patients can be of different intensity. Some people twitch their arms while some of them can stare at a blank space.

You should consult a doctor when they last for more than five minutes and after it has stopped, there is no return of consciousness. It is linked to various factors such as genes, head injury, brain conditions etc.

• Pituitary Tumor

Tumors that begin in the pituitary gland are known as pituitary tumor. Most of them are non cancerous and don’t spread to other parts of the body. They cause glands to produce lower levels of hormones. There may not be symptoms in each and every case. Some of the symptoms which are associated with these tumors are headache, vision loss, feeling cold etc.

Some of the common treatment options are as follows –

• Brain Tumor Surgery

It is an operation to remove tumor from the brain. Surgery depends on the type and grade of the tumor. It is the first treatment which is recommended by the doctor. There are different surgical options. In cortical mapping, areas of the brain which control the senses and language, are identified. If the skull needs to be opened, then craniotomy is the way to go. You are first given anesthesia and then incisions are made in the scalp to remove as much tumor as possible.

• Epilepsy Surgery

It is a surgical procedure given to control seizures. The main aim of this surgery is to remove the particular part of the brain which causes seizures. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device is placed under skin which lowers the onset of seizure by giving an electrical jolt. Temporal lobe epilepsy is treated by cutting away the area of the brain tissue which is affected. Focus of the seizure is removed in this method.

• Deep Brain Stimulation

It is a surgical procedure which is mostly done for Parkinson’s disease, OCD and Dystonia. Electrodes are implanted in certain specific areas of the brain. They produce electrical impulses that regulate abnormal impulses. The impulses given are controlled by a device which looks like a pacemaker. There may be some side effects after the surgery such as seizure, infection, headache, stoke, temporary pain at the site of implantation etc.

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Obesity And Overweight: Five Diseases And Health Conditions

Jul 13 2020 Published by under Uncategorized

A health care professional can readily tell if you are obese, overweight, or healthy by simply measuring your Body Mass Index, or BMI, in short. It effectively determines your weight in proportion to your height and the further it goes outside the scope of the standard range, the greater your odds are of developing a host of critical health issues from obesity and overweight.

Accomplishing and sustaining a healthy weight is something that cannot be achieved overnight and might turn out to be a challenging task for obese and overweight individuals in the long-term. Ensuring a healthy weight through appropriate means or at least preventing yourself from gaining more weight can help overweight people reduce the likelihood of developing specific medical conditions.

Obesity is on the verge of becoming a national epidemic in the USA and is associated with several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. The grave medical condition is responsible for an astounding 18% mortality rate in the age group of 40 to 85 among American population, as observed by a health research study carried out in 2013, questioning the deeply-rooted, prevailing notion of the medical and scientific community that a mere 5 in every 100 deaths in the country are related to obesity. The new finding essentially suggests that it is as fatal as cigarette smoking, when it comes to the discussion of public health hazards, as the particular way of nicotine consumption can be linked to 20 in every 100 deaths in the USA and is acknowledged as the major preventable cause of mortality in the country.

Almost 2 in every 5 American adults were diagnosed with obesity in 2015-16, which is a significant increase from 34% in 2007-08, and its impact became more profound with a steep increase from 5.7% to 7.7% during that time. While not a single state reported an obesity rate of over 15% in 1985, as many as 5 of them registered rates higher than 35% for the year 2016.

Obesity and overweight are often associated with emotional health issues like depression. People who are either obese or overweight may also experience weight bias as well as face the stigma of the medical care services providers and others, which, in turn, can result in guilt, feeling of rejection, or shame, further worsening the prevailing problems concerning one’s mental well-being.

The major diseases and health complications caused by obesity and overweight are illustrated below in brief.

I. TYPE 2 DIABETES

When the blood glucose concentration becomes abnormally high on a permanent basis, the particular medical condition is termed as type 2 diabetes. About 4 in every 5 individuals with the said form of diabetes are known to be either obese or overweight. High blood sugar levels can manifest a large number of medical conditions, such as stroke, heart conditions, eye issues, neuropathic damage, eye problems, and other health issues.

Allowing yourself to engage in periodic physical activities and reducing 5% to 7% of your weight may prevent or postpone type 2 diabetes onset in the event you belong to the risk group for the particular disease.

II. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

When the blood passes through the blood vessels in your body with significantly more force, the particular medical condition is known as hypertension, or more commonly, high blood pressure. It can cause an alarmingly great level of damage to your blood vessels, strain your heart, and help increase the odds of stroke, kidney disease, heart attack, and even death.

III. HEART DISEASE

The umbrella term heart disease is routinely used to indicate a wide and diverse gamut of medical conditions that can affect the overall well-being of the organ. If you are diagnosed with heart disease, you are at a greater risk of having heart failure, sudden cardiac death, angina, heart attack, or a heart rhythm that is not considered normal. Elevated fat levels in your bloodstream, high blood sugar concentrations, and high blood pressure may increase the odds of heart disease. Blood lipids or blood fats necessarily refer to triglycerides, High-Density Lipoprotein or HDL cholesterol, and Low-Density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol. Reducing 5% to 10% of your body mass is likely to help you mitigate the risks of developing heart disease and can help improve your blood flow, cholesterol levels, and blood pressure.

IV. STROKE

If there is a blockage or an incidence of blood vessel rupture in your neck or brain, it causes the blood supply in your brain to restrain all on a sudden, and the particular medical condition is known as stroke. A stroke can cause reversible or irreversible damage to your brain, resulting in partial or complete paralysis and thus, making you incapable of speaking or initiating body movements. To suffice, hypertension is recognized as being the vital cause of strokes.

V. SLEEP APNEA

Sleep apnea is a medical condition when an individual does not breathe frequently and is pretty much common in a large number of people around the globe. One may also cease breathing altogether for small intervals. If the said sleeping disorder continues to remain undiagnosed and untreated, it may increase the odds of other critical health issues, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

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